Posted : January 2014
Author : Kashif Masood
Despite the fact that the oceans are closer to us than the outer planets of the solar system , people have investigated only five percent of the ocean floor , which remains one of the greatest mysteries of our planet. The deepest part of the ocean - the Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is one of the most famous places, which we all know is not very much. Water pressure , which is a thousand times greater than at sea level, dipping into this place is akin to suicide . But thanks to modern technology and a few brave souls who risked their lives down there, we learned many interesting things about this wonderful place .
|Coordinates of the Mariana Trench: 11 ° 22 'north latitude and 142 ° 35' east longitude|
Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean to the east (about 200 km) from the 15 Mariana Islands near Guam. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the crust length of about 2550 km and a width of 69 km on average.
According to recent studies in 2011 the depth of the deepest point of the Mariana Trench is about 10,994 meters ± 40 meters. For comparison, the height of the highest peak in the world - Mount Everest is 8848 meters. This means that if Everest was in the Mariana Trench, it would be covered even 2.1 km of water. Here are some other interesting facts that can be found along the way and at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
1. Very Hot Water
Going to such a depth , we expect that there will be very cold. The temperature here reaches just above zero, ranging from 1 to 4 degrees Celsius. However, at a depth of about 1.6 km from the surface of the Pacific Ocean are hydrothermal vents called " black smokers." They shoot the water, which is heated to 450 degrees Celsius. This water is rich in minerals that help sustain life in this area. Although the temperature of water that are hundreds of degrees above the boiling point, the water is not boiling water through enormous pressure to 155 times higher than on the surface.
2. Toxic Giant Amoeba
Several years ago at the bottom of the Mariana Trench discovered giant 10- centimeter amoebas called ksenofiofory . These single-celled organisms likely become so large because of the environment in which they are found at a depth of 10.6 km. Cold temperatures, high pressure and a lack of sunlight are likely contributed to the fact that these large sizes acquired amoeba.Furthermore, ksenofiofory have incredible abilities. They are resistant to multiple elements and chemicals, including uranium, mercury and lead that would kill other animals and humans.
Strong water pressure in the Mariana Trench does not give a chance for the survival of any animal with a shell or bone. However, in 2012 in the gutter near the serpentine hydrothermal vents were discovered clams. Serpentine contains hydrogen and methane, which allows you to form living organisms. How shellfish saved his shell at this pressure remains unknown.In addition, hydrothermal vents emit another gas - hydrogen sulphide, which is fatal to shellfish. However, they have learned to communicate in a safe sulfur compound protein that allowed the populations of these shellfish to survive.
4. Pure Liquid Carbon Dioxide
Champagne hydrothermal source of the Mariana Trench , which is outside Okinawa trough near Taiwan, is the only known underwater area where you can find liquid carbon dioxide . Source , which opened in 2005 , was named in honor of the bubbles , which were carbon dioxide.Many believe that these sources are called "white smokers" because of the lower temperature , can be the source of life . It was in the depths of the oceans with low temperature and abundance of chemicals and energy could harbor life.
If we had the opportunity to swim at the depths of the Mariana Trench, we would feel that it is covered by a layer of viscous mucus. Sand, in the form familiar to us, there does not exist. The bottom of the trough consists essentially of residues of crushed shells, and plankton, which sank to the bottom for many years. Because of the incredible water pressure, almost all there turns into a small grayish- yellow thick mud.
6. Liquid Sulfur
Daikoku volcano , which is located at a depth of about 414 meters on the way to the Mariana Trench, is the source of one of the rarest of phenomena on the planet. There is a lake of pure molten sulfur. The only place where you can discover the liquid sulfur, is a satellite of Jupiter - Io. In this pit, called " pot", seething black emulsion boils at 187 degrees Celsius. Although scientists have not been able to investigate this place in detail, perhaps deeper contains more liquid sulfur. This can reveal the secret of the origin of life on Earth.According to the hypothesis of Gaia, our planet is a self-governing body in which all living and nonliving connected to maintain its life. If this hypothesis is correct, the number of signals can be observed in natural systems and cycles of the Earth. Since sulfur compounds by organisms in the ocean must be sufficiently stable in water to allow them to go into the air, and again return to the land.
In late 2011, in the Mariana Trench was found four stone bridge that stretched from one end to the other at 69 km. It seems that they were formed at the junction of the Pacific and Philippine tectonic plates. One of the bridges Dutton Ridge, which was opened 1980, was extraordinarily high , as a small mountain . At the highest point, the ridge up to 2.5 km above the " Challenger Abyss." Like many aspects of the Mariana Trench, the purpose of these bridges is unclear. But the fact that one of the most mysterious and unknown places, found these formations is awesome .
8. James Cameron's Dive Into The Mariana Trench
Since the opening of the deepest places of the Mariana Trench - " Challenger Abyss " in 1875, it was visited by only three people. Were the first American Lieutenant Don Walsh and explorer Jacques Piccard, who made a dive 23 January 1960 on the ship " Challenger".52 years here has ventured to plunge another man - a famous film director James Cameron . Since March 26, 2012 , Cameron went down to the bottom and took a few photos . During the dive, James Cameron in 2012 to the " Abyss Challenger" a bathyscaphe DeepSea Challenge, he was trying to watch everything that happens in this place until mechanical problems forced him to rise to the surface .While he was at the deepest point of the world ocean , he came to the shocking conclusion that he was completely alone . In the Mariana Trench was not terrible sea monsters or any miracles. According to Cameron the bottom of the ocean was " moon ... empty ... lonely " and he felt " complete isolation from all humanity."
9. Mariana Trench In The Ocean - The Largest Reserve